Climate affects grape ripeness and flavor profiles. For example, cooler climates produce wines with higher acidity, while warmer climates lead to riper grapes with more pronounced fruit flavors and less acidity.

Wine subregions are smaller areas within a larger wine region that have distinct characteristics and produce unique wines. These subregions may differ in climate, soil composition, grape varieties grown and winemaking techniques used. They offer more specific information about the wine’s origin and can help you better understand its taste profile. Some examples of famous subregions include Chianti in Tuscany and Barolo in Piedmont.

Subregions can have unique soil types, microclimates and topography that contribute to the wine’s flavor profile. This is why wines from subregions within a larger region may have distinct characteristics even if made from the same grape varietal.

The AVA is a system used in the United States to designate specific wine-growing regions. It differs from the European appellation system in that crop yields, grape varietals grown or winemaking methods don’t factor into the classification.